Clara Marin

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Viewing 15 posts - 1 through 15 (of 19 total)
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  • in reply to: Biosecurity outdoor #1659
    Clara Marin
    Participant

    No, I have no experience in the use of nets.

    Indeed, when there are outbreaks, as we are experiencing right now, confining the animals is the least bad option to avoid contagion.

    Clara Marin
    Participant

    The MinION is a sequencing platform that offers near real-time analysis of DNA sequence in situ; this makes the tool attractive for deployment in fieldwork or clinical settings.

    It is the size of a mobile phone and is very useful for assessing alterations in microbial balance.

    in reply to: Biosecurity and outside acces for poultry #1657
    Clara Marin
    Participant

    With the transition of laying hens from cages to the floor and free-range environments, diseases not seen in laying hens for decades are now re-emerging. For example, parasitic cycles. Especially forms from the soil. Outdoors soil management to avoid cross-infection is one of the most challenging.

    in reply to: Role of animated vectors in pathogen spreading #1656
    Clara Marin
    Participant

    Historically, control measures have been based on the use of chemical insecticides (usually pyrethroids, carbamates or organophosphates), which, due to their toxicity characteristics, could only be used when animals are not present.

    These days is essential to use in rotation molecules belonging to new families and which do not present cross-resistance with the most commonly used ones; molecules that present very low or no toxicity and which, of course, are authorised for use in the presence of animals so that there is no risk of toxicity or residues in meat; whose activity is adulticidal and larvicidal at the same time in order to control all the mobile forms of the life cycle.

    in reply to: Biosecurity and Salmonella/Campylobacter control #1655
    Clara Marin
    Participant

    There are many commercially available active ingredients effective against rodents. Third generation anticoagulant rodenticides are highly effective. In addition, the animals do not die immediately when they ingest the bait, which makes other animals fall into the trap.

    To ensure success, the most important thing is to combine chemical and physical pest control.

    The chemical must be desirable and bound to the soil. In addition, it should be rotated to avoid resistance and should be changed in different formats (solid, liquid, foam, etc.).

    Clara Marin
    Participant

    It is tough to control outdoors with physical or chemical measures of the pathogens transmitted through wild animals.

    How to prevent a wild bird from flying over our layers? however, if we can use an exhaustive vaccination protocol during breeding, immunizing our animals well, so that when they come into contact with the outside, they will be immunologically well prepared and do not suffer from any immunosuppressive disease that can facilitate infection and spread of other pathogens.

    in reply to: Biosecurity outdoor #1645
    Clara Marin
    Participant

    It is tough to control outdoors with physical or chemical measures of the pathogens transmitted through wild animals.

    How to prevent a wild bird from flying over our layers? however, if we can use an exhaustive vaccination protocol during breeding, immunizing our animals well, so that when they come into contact with the outside, they will be immunologically well prepared and do not suffer from any immunosuppressive disease that can facilitate infection and spread of other pathogens.

    in reply to: Campylobacter vaccination #1644
    Clara Marin
    Participant

    Any tool capable of fighting Campylobacter is worthy of being studied in depth. However, today the development and commercialization of an effective vaccine against Campylobacter remain a challenge.

    in reply to: Campilobacter #1643
    Clara Marin
    Participant

    The control of Alphitobius is another challenge for our sector. They are commonly found in poultry litter and in the poultry farm environment. Birds can become infected with pathogens by ingesting contaminated beetles.

    Therefore, the removal of the litter as far as possible from the house is mandatory. In a broiler house, the infestation of darkling beetles can be massive (up to 1,000 insects per square meter of litter).

    When the chickens go to the slaughterhouse, and the house cools down, dark beetles climb up the walls of the ship, hiding and eliminating the insulating material between the panels that form the walls. Here they hide and stay until the poultry house is ready for the next flock to enter. Then, they go down to the bedding and infest it again. For this reason, and if the problem is already present on the farm, we must wait for the last chicken to come out of the house and before it cools down, spray the appropriate insecticide on the walls and floor (so that as many of them as possible die in his escape). Also, the litter should be removed as far away from the farm as possible.

    If the problem has not yet entered the house, we must have an exhaustive control of the bedding material that arrives at our farm.

    in reply to: Campilobacter #1642
    Clara Marin
    Participant

    The main problem is that Campylobacter stays in the mucosal layer of the intestine, so it might not stimulate enough immune response to provide protection.

    Regarding Campylobacter vaccine programs, researchers revealed that the development of a live-attenuated vaccine has been failing by this microorganism’s genomic and phenotypic instability.

    Researchers have used S. Typhimurium engineered genes that delivered immunity to Campylobacter, but with limited success. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that killed and flagellin-based Campylobacter vaccines do not possess an effective immune response to protect chickens from colonization with this organism.

    A vaccine against Campylobacter in the field is a challenge for our sector.

    Clara Marin
    Participant

    Indeed, the study of the microbiota, mainly on-site, is a powerful tool to assess how any new biosecurity measure established on the farm influences the intestinal microbiota balance. Tools like MinIon allow us to make decisions as quickly as possible to stop the transmission of the pathogen between animals.

    in reply to: Campylobacter control strategies in poultry flocks #1640
    Clara Marin
    Participant

    Campylobacter spreads mainly horizontally. However, it remains viable for a short time in the environment; therefore, proper cleaning and disinfection between flocks is essential to avoid transmission between flocks.

    The main problem lies in the high concentrations of the microorganism in the cecum upon arrival at the slaughterhouse. For this reason, we must control their presence in caeca during rearing, primarily through high-quality microbiological chlorinated water and feed additives (such as acids), since, in the absence of another effective immune tool, it is the only thing we can do.

    In addition, we have to be especially careful in the fasting stage and transport to the slaughterhouse. Reducing time and stress to the maximum and preventing microorganisms entrance through transport personnel. All these facts must be controlled to avoid, as far as possible, the arrival of animals at the slaughterhouse, excreting the bacteria in faeces since it would be a great danger for external contamination of the carcass.

    in reply to: Outdoor access and pathogen control #1633
    Clara Marin
    Participant

    Indeed, outdoor access is challenging for us.
    In a closed house, multiple risk factors can favour the re-circulation of Salmonella and Campylobacter. However, when the house is opened to the outside, these risk factors increase, so good management and the professionalism of the staff are essential. In addition, the immunisation of the birds during the rearing phase becomes paramount to ensure that they are highly protected when they move on to the laying phase. Outdoor, there are many dangers that we cannot control (excrements of migratory birds, predators, parasites on the soil, etc.), so the only thing we can do is to prepare our birds immunologically against these challenges that can lead to immunosuppression and thus favour the colonisation of pathogenic microorganisms.

    The vaccination plan will largely depend on the geographical area where the farm is located, but it should be as ambitious as possible and should be reviewed between flocks. Bacteria such as E. coli, which greatly exacerbate problems when animals are taken outside, should be controlled as far as possible.

    Clara Marin
    Participant

    It is well known that multi-species farms are per se of great danger to perpetuate the presence of microorganisms such as Campylobacter and Salmonella. Especially when there are animals vaccinated against Samonella and subjected to a rigorous control plan and other species with which they coexist and are a source of infection are not.

    Therefore, if this happens, it is important to manage the different species as separate farms and apply all biosecurity measures to each of them.

    However, it will be challenging to avoid dissemination through animate vectors, so you will have to be very strict in this respect.

    Clara Marin
    Participant

    Indeed, there are methods to reduce the presence of Campylobacter at farm level. Starting from strict biosecurity standards, as we have discussed previously in the forum. However, the hygienic quality of the water must be optimal and is an important risk factor for Campylobacter remaining between flocks, and for this, it must be adequately chlorinated (Campylobacter is very susceptible to chlorine). However, often the presence of biofilm in the pipes means that the water does not have good microbiological quality. We must remember that any microorganism in biofilm form is 1000 times more resistant than in individual form. Therefore, we must be exhaustive in the hygiene of such pipes. This fact leads to excellent results later on.
    In the same way, the addition of feed additives such as acids is giving excellent results. However, these measures are only effective if the rest of the farm environment is well controlled.

Viewing 15 posts - 1 through 15 (of 19 total)