Indeed, outdoor access is challenging for us.
In a closed house, multiple risk factors can favour the re-circulation of Salmonella and Campylobacter. However, when the house is opened to the outside, these risk factors increase, so good management and the professionalism of the staff are essential. In addition, the immunisation of the birds during the rearing phase becomes paramount to ensure that they are highly protected when they move on to the laying phase. Outdoor, there are many dangers that we cannot control (excrements of migratory birds, predators, parasites on the soil, etc.), so the only thing we can do is to prepare our birds immunologically against these challenges that can lead to immunosuppression and thus favour the colonisation of pathogenic microorganisms.
The vaccination plan will largely depend on the geographical area where the farm is located, but it should be as ambitious as possible and should be reviewed between flocks. Bacteria such as E. coli, which greatly exacerbate problems when animals are taken outside, should be controlled as far as possible.