The main problem is that Campylobacter stays in the mucosal layer of the intestine, so it might not stimulate enough immune response to provide protection.
Regarding Campylobacter vaccine programs, researchers revealed that the development of a live-attenuated vaccine has been failing by this microorganism’s genomic and phenotypic instability.
Researchers have used S. Typhimurium engineered genes that delivered immunity to Campylobacter, but with limited success. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that killed and flagellin-based Campylobacter vaccines do not possess an effective immune response to protect chickens from colonization with this organism.
A vaccine against Campylobacter in the field is a challenge for our sector.